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中华口腔医学会口腔颌面外科专业委员会的建立与发展( 赵怡芳)

2015-10-08 16:05:30 来源: 作者: 人气:0 评论:0
 中国最早的口腔外科1919年开设在华西协和大学牙科系。1952年,口腔外科改名为口腔颌面外科。但与发达国家相比我国口腔颌面外科学会的建立则较晚,如美国口腔外科学会成立于1921年(1977年更名为美国口腔颌面外科学会),日本口腔外科学会成立于1933年(1984年更名为日本口腔颌面外科学会)。口腔颌面外科专委会(CSOMS)的前身是中华医学会口腔科分会口腔颌面外科学组,成立于1986年12月。邱蔚六教授担任学组组长。在中华口腔医学会成立后,1998年学组改名为中华口腔医学会口腔颌面外科专业委员会,邱蔚六教授被选为主任委员,连任两届。丁鸿才、王翰章、张锡泽、周树夏、张震康、邱蔚六、王大章、李金荣、刘宝林、袁文化、刘世勋教授等口腔颌面外科专委会的创建者,为推进学术交流与学科发展,做出了重要贡献。

目前,口腔颌面外科专委会有效会员达1600余名。由于口外专委会(CSOMS)是中华口腔医学会(CSA)的一个分会,CSOMS的会员必须是CSA的会员,专委会没有独立的账号,不具法人资格。有效会员可定期收到一份中国口腔颌面外科杂志及中华口腔医学杂志。专委会的秘书处设在上海,有两位兼职的秘书处理日常工作。每届专委会的任期为4年,2009年后改为3年,与口腔医学会内其他专委会任期一致。通常每二年举办一次全国性学术会议,而换届时的学术会议则与中华口腔医学会的年会同期进行。全国学术会议,会员享受注册费10%优惠。此外,专委会还举办专题研讨会及技术训练学习班,这些学术活动通常由亚专业相应的学组实施,如肿瘤、创伤、正颌外科、唾液腺疾病、唇腭裂、脉管性疾病、牙槽外科及颞下颌关节外科等。学会的专家还参加各地的继续教育项目。根据口外专委会的建议,12个国家临床专科(口腔颌面外科)建设项目单位每年接受2名西部省份基层医院的医师免费进修学习半年,以促进这些地区口腔颌面外科的发展。

据报告,中国设有口腔科的综合医院有17000余家,口腔医院370余家。这些医疗机构的口腔外科门诊主要是开展牙槽外科,而病房则开展创伤、肿瘤与修复、唇腭裂、颞下颌关节、唾液腺手术等。口腔颌面外科是一个实力强的专业,与外科相关专业或其他口腔专业有同等重要的地位。目前,口外专委会的会员绝大多数来自大型综合医院的口腔科或专科医院的口腔颌面外科医师。

中国口腔颌面外科杂志(CJOMS)创办于2002年,是中华口腔医学会主办的专业杂志,主编是邱蔚六教授。每年发行6期。CSOMS的有效会员可免费赠阅中国口腔颌面外科杂志和中华口腔医学杂志。由口外专委会或其学组撰写的9份重要的指南或共识发表在CJOMS,其中有4份指南还发表在相关的国际医学杂志,如头颈部血管瘤和脉管畸形治疗指南(郑家伟等. Head Neck 2010),头颈部淋巴管畸形治疗指南(周琴等. Oral Oncology 2011),头颈部静脉畸形治疗指南(郑家伟等. Int J Clin Exp Med 2013),牙颌面畸形诊疗指南(胡静等. J Craniomaxillofac surg 2013)。 这些指南的发布促进了本专业诊疗行为的规范及提高医疗质量。

虽然口腔颌面外科的专家系统已存在几十年,但专科医师及专科医师培训机构认证工作开展较晚。2006年口腔颌面外科专委会受中华口腔医学会、国家医学考试中心的委托开展专科医师培训基地的认证试点工作,有7家医院接受检查与认证。2014年,CSOMS制定了口腔颌面外科专科医师培训基地细则及口腔颌面外科专科医师培训细则。专科医师培训细则要求医学院校本科毕业后需接受为期5年的专科医师培训,头3年为基础训练,后两年为难度较大的手术训练。专科医师培训基地为有口腔颌面外科建制的大型综合医院或专科医院。

邱蔚六院士是学术领军人物。2011年,由他发起并与夫人王晓仪教授首先捐资100万元成立邱蔚六口腔颌面外科发展医学奖基金,用于奖励有突出贡献的口腔颌面外科老专家、中青年学者,并支持优秀的青年医师去国外培训。每两年评奖一次。每次有2-3位高年医师及一位青年学者获奖,有1-2位青年医师获资助去国外学习一年。该项基金成立后,也获得了专委会会员及社会的部分捐款。我们非常感谢邱蔚六教授为中国口腔颌面外科和口腔医学的发展做出的巨大贡献。

1999年CSOMS正式加入国际口腔颌面外科学会(IAOMS),2001加入亚洲口腔颌面外科学会(Asian AOMS)。CSOMS积极参加上述两个学会的活动并与其他国家的同行进行广泛学术交流。2008年5月22-25日的第12届国际口腔癌大会(12th ICOOC)在上海国际会议中心召开,27个国家或地区的540名代表参加了此次盛会。同年9月16-20日近40名中国口腔颌面外科学者参加美国西雅图市召开的第90届美国口腔颌面外科学术年会,共同举办了AAOMS-CSOMS学术会议。2009年5月23-27日第19届ICOMS在上海成功召开,会议是由CSOMS和香港口外学会共同承办,76个国家和地区的1500余名代表出席。邱蔚六教授获得IAOMS最高荣誉——杰出会士奖,以表彰他毕生致力于口腔颌面外科学教育及为国际口腔颌面外科学会发展而付出的努力和成就。2014年,在当值主席俞光岩教授的主持下,第11届亚洲口腔颌面外科学术会议在西安成功举办,有1100余代表参会。会议期间,CSOMS与日本口腔颌面外科医师协会(JSOMS)签署了学术交流与合作备忘录,共同推进学术交流与技术合作。此次上海年会期间,我们将与日本的同行联合举办第一届中日口腔颌面外科学术年会,分享与交流学术成果和临床经验。此外,在上海交通大学第九人民医院及北京大学口腔医院有两个IAOMS授权的培训中心,分别接受国外的专科医师进行口腔颌面肿瘤手术与修复重建的训练,促进本地区及相关国家口腔颌面外科的发展与进步。2014年3月,英国爱丁堡皇家外科学院头颈与颌面肿瘤培训中心落户上海交通大学第九人民医院。最近获悉,第九届世界口腔肿瘤大会将于2023年在中国上海举办。这些重要的活动或工作,有利于国际合作与交流,展示了我国口腔颌面外科的学术水平,提升了国际地位。

尽管CSOMS的历史较短,但已取得较快而稳定的发展,它的成功是几代专委会负责人的执着追求、自我牺牲与奉献的结果。没有前辈的开拓性视野,同行的不懈努力则无法实现本专业的成就。我们对中国口腔颌面外科的持续发展充满信心。

Establishment and Development of the Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Yi-fang Zhao (Wuhan University School of Stomaology, Wuhan 430079, Hubei Province)
 
The first section of oral surgery was established in 1919 at the Faculty of Dentistry of West China Union University. In 1952, oral surgery was changed into oral and maxillofacial surgery in China. However, the establishment of Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (CSOMS) was relatively late compared with the association or society of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in developed countries, such as the American Society of oral Surgery in 1921 (the ASOS was changed to AAOMS in 1977)and the Japanese association of Oral Surgery in 1933 (the JSOS was changed to JSOMS in 1984. The precursor of the Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (CSOMS) was the Professional Group of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, which established on December 3, 1986, affiliated with Stomatological Branch under Chinese Medical Association. Professor Wei-liu Qiu was appointed as the head of this group with three four-year terms. In 1998, the group was changed to the Chinese society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery affiliated with the Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA). Professor Qiu was elected as the first president of the society and served two four-year terms. The professors Hong-cai Ding, Han-zhang Wang, Xi-ze Zhang, Shu-xia Zhou, Zhen-kang Zhang, Wei-liu Qiu, Da-zhang Wang, Jin-rong Li, Bao-lin Liu, Wen-hua Yuan and Shi-xuen Liu must be held in grateful and respected memory. They were major contributors to the genesis of the CSOMS.  These pioneers continue to expand the scope and practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery and were trying to promote academic exchange and international collaboration.

Now there are approximately 1600 active members in the CSOMS. Since it is an affiliated organization of the Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA), there is without an independent budget and the members of the CSOMS should be members of the CSA. The all active members can receive the China Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (the CJOMS) and the Chinese Journal of Stomatology (the CJS). The permanent office of the CSOMS is located in the Ninth People’s hospital of Shanghai, and two part time secretaries are dealing with the daily affairs under the guidance of the society’spresident. The executive council meets yearly and served for 4-years term, after 2009 become for three-year term. The separate national congress on oral and maxillofacial surgery is held biannually after society official launch. In the recent years, another meeting on oral and maxillofacial surgery was included in the annual conventions of the China Stomatological Association. The membership of the CSOMS received 10% discount of registered fees of the national congress.  The symposia and hands-on courses were usually organized by its divisions related with subspecialties, such as oral oncology, maxillofacial trauma, orthognathic surgery, salivary gland diseases, cleft lip and palate, vascular anomalies, dento-alveolar surgery, and temporomandibular joint surgery. The society also officially participates in continuing education courses for its members in different parts of the country. It was suggested by the CSOMS that 12 clinical key specialties of OMS in China accepted two due-free trainees per year from the county’s hospitals of western provinces for 6-months clinical training to facilitate the development of oral and maxillofacial surgery in these regions. 

   It was reported that there are about 17000 general hospitals with stomatological department and 370 stomatological hospitals. Oral surgery services are provided mainly in a outpatient department in which dento-alveolar surgery predominates, while oral and maxillofacial surgery in the inpatient department covers the full scope of specialty practice: maxillofacial trauma, orthognathic surgery, tumor and reconstructive surgery, cleft lip and palate, temporomandibular joint, salivary gland surgery and others. Thus, in China today there is a strong specialty of OMS which is well organized and comfortably meets as an equal with related surgical specialties and dental professions.   The majority of members of the CSOMS are from the stomatological department of public major general hospitals or oral and maxillofacial department of stomatological hospitals.
The China Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (CJOMS) is an official publication sponsored by the CSA, issued six times a year, which was founded in November 2002. Editor-in-chief of the CJOMS is professor Wei-liu Qiu. Nine of the most important guidelines and clinical consensus documents written by members of the CSOMS were published respectively in this journal, in which four also issued in the international journals: Treatment guideline for hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck (Zhen JW, et al. Head Neck 2010), treatment guidelines of lymphatic malformations of the head and neck (Qin Zhou, et al. Oral Oncology 2011), guidelines for the treatment of head and neck venous malformations (Zheng JW, et al. Int J Clin Exp Med,2013) and guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of dento-maxillofacial deformities (Hu J, et al. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2013). These guidelines have improved the quality and standards of the specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery in China.

Although a specialist system of oral and maxillofacial surgery has been in existence for decades, the accreditation of training institutions and trainees was relatively late. In 2006, the CSOMS was allowed by the CSA and National Center for Medical Examination to preliminarily provide accreditation for a part of training institutions. Seven hospitals of stomatology were inspected and accredited by a specialist board of the CSOMS. However, until 2014, a nationally recognized standards or requirements for training institutions and trainees were produced. To qualify as a specialist, candidates (trainees) after acquisition of the dental or medical diploma have to undergo 5 years of postgraduate education and training divided into three years of basic and 2 years of higher surgical training. The training institutions are usually the academic teaching units, which are well embedded in major general hospitals or stomatological hospitals.

Professor Wei-liu is an outstanding academic leader, who was elected as an academician in Chinese Academy of Engineering in 2001, its being the highest academic title in China. In 2011, professor Qiu and his wife generously donated a total of up to ¥ one million to establish a foundation for the OMS Development Award, which is used to reward the senior distinguished members and young scholars, and to financially support the excellent junior surgeons going to overseas training for a year. Two or three seniors and one young scholar were rewarded, and one or two juniors recognized each other year after its operation. This foundation has also received substantial funds from the membership and trade. We sincerely appreciate professor Qiu for his significant contributions to the development of oral and maxillofacial surgery and stomatology in China.
The CSOMS was formally affiliated to International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (IAOMS) in April, 1999 at Washington and joined Asian Association of Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons (Asian AOMS) in 2001. Chinese members are encouraged to participate in activities related to these associations and further develop extensive cooperation and exchange with colleagues of the other countries. On May 22-25, 2008, 12th International Congress on Oral Cancer (ICOOC) was successfully held in Shanghai in International Conference Center, with more than 500 delegates from 27 countries or regions. On Sept.16-20, 2008, about 40 Chinese delegates attended the AAOMS-CSOMS Conjunction Meeting, 90th Annual Congress of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) in the Seattle. In May 24-27, 2009, the 19th ICOMS was held in Shanghai, China. The congress was organized jointly by the CSOMS and Hong Kong colleagues. It was in putting on a highly successful conference with over 1500 delegates from 76 countries or regions around the world. Professor Wei-liu Qiu was awarded as “the Distinguished Fellow Award” for appreciating his contribution to education and development of oral and maxillofacial surgery in China and world. The CSOMS was also delighted to host 11th Asian Congress on Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (2014) in Xi’an under Professor Gang-ye Yu as the president of the Asian AOMS.  During this congress, the CSOMS signed a memorandum of agreement for academic alliance with the Japanese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (JSOMS). Both societies agree to cooperate with each other to advance and exchange knowledge and techniques in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The first joint conference on oral and maxillofacial surgery will be held in Shanghai on Sept. 25-26, 2015, with speakers from both countries sharing their research and clinical experiences. Additionally, China has two clinical training programs in oral and maxillofacial oncology and reconstructive surgery authorized by the IAOMS, respectively located at the Hospital of Stomatology of Peking University in Beijing and the Ninth People’s Hospital of Jiaotong University in Shanghai, with aims to promote academic and clinical excellence amongst oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the Asian or other regions. On March 12, 2014, the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburg Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Oncology Training Center was established at the Ninth People’s Hospital of Jiaotong University in Shanghai. It is pleasant to know that the 9th  World Congress  of International Academy of Oral Oncology (IAOO) will be held in Shanghai in 2023.These important events facilitated international communication and fully demonstrated the academic status and influence of Chinese oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Despite the relatively short history of our society, it has grown into a robust and fast-growing organization among the CSA.  The steady growth and success of the society is due largely to the initiative, self sacrifice and dedication of successive executive councils.  The achievement could not have materialized without the pioneering vision of our forbears and the continuing efforts of all our members. We are confident to be in an excellent position to grow further and to serve better our patients.

(此文曾在2015年 9月25日召开的第12次全国口腔颌面外科会议暨第1次中-日口腔颌面外科联合会议上报告)

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